Saturday, March 21, 2020

Best Writing Apps and Tools of 2018 - Freewrite Store

Best Writing Apps and Tools of 2018 - Freewrite Store Writing Software that Will Blow Your Mind Today’s guest post is by  Matt Grant.  Matt is a Brooklyn-based writer and editor.  His  work has appeared in  Literary Hub,  Book Riot,  HuffPost, and  BookBrowse.  Find Matt  online, or follow him on  Twitter  and  Facebook. Writing Software that Will Blow Your Mind As writers, we know that our craft takes time and energy. The last thing we need is to get bogged down in the process itself. Beyond the basic story, we’re often also struggling to keep track of character details, side plots, and random flashes of inspiration for parts of the story we’re not even working on yet. We need a solid place to keep all of this information in one, easily accessible place. Thankfully, gone are the days where you sat down at a typewriter and wrote everything in one long document. Yet one of the most frustrating things in our technological age is to be plugging away on a work in progress, only to get sidelined by bad or sluggish software. Below is a list of some of the best planning, writing and editing software available today with amazing features you didn’t know you needed. And the best part is, many of them are free. Planning: Scapple Scapple, by the folks at Literature and Latte, is a basic mind-mapping tool. It’s super simple and easy to use. All you do is make notes and connect them to one another by dragging and dropping them onto one another. Notes can be customized by color and size, although these options are limited. This can actually be a good thing, though, since you can’t waste too much time worrying about making your map look pretty. Scapple makes brainstorming not only easy, but fun. It’s like having an endless amount of paper at your disposal. Running out of room? No problem, you can easily zoom out of your working area and start a new map or connection in another area. yWriter – FREE! (Windows Only) yWriter is a free word processor for Windows PCs. Built by a writer for writers, the program breaks up your novel into scenes or chapters, making it easier for you to keep track of what goes where. You can create character cards and tags, and add a lot of helpful customizable notes to your scenes, such as the time of day it takes place and how long the scene is supposed to last. Due to its simplicity, I wouldn’t recommend yWriter for writing a full novel, although it has been done. There are much more advanced programs for that. yWriter is better for planning out your story scene by scene. But if you’re on a budget, yWriter will get the job done! Writing: Scrivener I’ve been using Scrivener for several years now, and it’s hands-down the best thing that could have happened to my writing. Scrivener is one of most popular writing tools available today. It’s so much more than just a word processor – it’s a novel-generating machine. Similar to yWriter, Scrivener allows you to break up your project into different parts, but it’s not just confined to chapters or scenes. You can have a flashback, a brief exchange between characters, or an entire short story in one document. These can be edited separately, allowing you to focus on just one small part of your work, or in â€Å"Scrivenings Mode,† which links together a series of scenes, like a whole first act. There are tons of easy-to-use, customizable features like split-screen, a digital note card outliner, a binder, and my personal favorite, compose mode.    If it all seems overwhelming, you don’t have to use all of the features. With Scrivener, you can find what works for you. It’s also cheap – at less than $50, Scrivener is an absolute steal. Sprinter – FREE! If you like â€Å"word sprints† – quick, 15-minute bursts of writing – consider giving Sprinter a try. Sprinter is an uncomplicated, distraction-free web-based writing program with a timer. You simply start writing, and the timer on the right side of the page begins its countdown. Need more than 15 minutes? No problem, set the timer for as long as you wish. You can also make a word count goal. Sprinter is great for brainstorming, flash fiction, writing prompts, and more. If you need to save your work for later, create a Postbox account and sync to Dropbox, Google Drive, and Evernote. Ulysses (Mac only) Similar to Scrivener, Ulysses is a customizable writing tool with lots of great features. You can organize your writing by project or subject, attach files, set writing goals, and add links and images to your text with ease. Ulysses utilizes a clear, clean, and beautiful interface. The editor allows you to choose your own colors, outlines, and more.  Ã‚   One of the greatest benefits of Ulysses is its synchronization capabilities. The program syncs seamlessly with iCloud and works on iOS as well, so you can write anywhere you are, on any device. It also integrates with Dropbox, making it easy to collaborate with others. iaWriter (Mac and Android only – FREE on Android!) iaWriter earns its place on this list because it’s a clear and clean plain-text editor with some of the most important features of the others, but at a much lower price. iaWriter might not be as versatile as Ulysses and Scrivener, but it works on the same principles. One of the coolest features that set iaWriter apart is Focus Mode, which dims everything except the current sentence you’re working on. You’re sure to have better and stronger sentences after using it. Syntax Control makes Focus Mode even better by highlighting your sentence’s grammatical structure. With the latest version of iaWriter, you can even add pictures and tables to content blocks, in case you’re working on something other than a straightforward novel. Editing: Hemingway Editor – FREE! If you haven’t been using this free online editing software that highlights your sentence structure and syntax, you’ve been missing out. Simply copy and paste your text into the Hemingway Editor’s interface, and it will show you what needs to be fixed. Things like overly complex structures, use of passive voice, and readability all become instantly highlighted and color-coded, allowing you to see all problems at a glance. You can even format your text into headings, subheadings, and add quotes and links. There’s a paid desktop version that works offline as well. Grammarly – FREE! Grammarly is a neat little browser extension that does essentially the same thing the Hemingway Editor does, but in real time. It will highlight spelling and grammar errors and suggest fixes. Grammarly also sends weekly emails summarizing your editing stats. You can opt out of if this feature if you wish. The greatest thing about this free plugin is that it works on most websites and text boxes, including Gmail and social media sites. Use it, and you’ll never accidentally send an unedited tweet again! When it comes to your writing projects, don’t settle for just a straightforward word processor anymore. With so much technology at your fingertips, there are thousands of writing tools and apps available that can make your writing time more productive and enjoyable than ever. Yet each program is as unique and different as every writer. Remember that not every program is going to fit your particular needs and style. If you’re spending money, take time to choose a program that will work for you. Most of these programs offer trial versions, so spend time learning them and working out their features before you pay. Just don’t take too long – your work in progress still needs your attention as well! What writing software do you swear by? Do you have any programs that you love and would recommend to others? Let us know in the comments!    Matt Grant  loves to write about writing, business, and all forms of popular  culture – books, film, and television. Matt started writing DVD reviews for  Pop Matters  in 2012, and in 2016, he followed through on a life-long dream by launching a part-time writing business at  www.mattgrantwriter.com. Since then, Matt’s work has appeared in  Literary Hub,  Book Riot,  HuffPost, and  BookBrowse,  and he has several ongoing clients.  His first personal essay,  Swimming Lessons,  is being published in LongReads at the end of August. Matt is also currently hard at work on his first novel, a comedic take on fantasy tropes for young adults. When not writing or reading, Matt works in youth development as an after-school program director  for one of the largest middle schools in Manhattan. Matt lives in Brooklyn with his wife, Katelyn. You can find him online at  www.mattgrantwriter.com, on  Twitter  @mattgrantwriter, and on Facebook  @mattgra ntwriter. Best Writing Apps and Tools of 2018 - Freewrite Store Writing Software that Will Blow Your Mind Today’s guest post is by  Matt Grant.  Matt is a Brooklyn-based writer and editor.  His  work has appeared in  Literary Hub,  Book Riot,  HuffPost, and  BookBrowse.  Find Matt  online, or follow him on  Twitter  and  Facebook. Writing Software that Will Blow Your Mind As writers, we know that our craft takes time and energy. The last thing we need is to get bogged down in the process itself. Beyond the basic story, we’re often also struggling to keep track of character details, side plots, and random flashes of inspiration for parts of the story we’re not even working on yet. We need a solid place to keep all of this information in one, easily accessible place. Thankfully, gone are the days where you sat down at a typewriter and wrote everything in one long document. Yet one of the most frustrating things in our technological age is to be plugging away on a work in progress, only to get sidelined by bad or sluggish software. Below is a list of some of the best planning, writing and editing software available today with amazing features you didn’t know you needed. And the best part is, many of them are free. Planning: Scapple Scapple, by the folks at Literature and Latte, is a basic mind-mapping tool. It’s super simple and easy to use. All you do is make notes and connect them to one another by dragging and dropping them onto one another. Notes can be customized by color and size, although these options are limited. This can actually be a good thing, though, since you can’t waste too much time worrying about making your map look pretty. Scapple makes brainstorming not only easy, but fun. It’s like having an endless amount of paper at your disposal. Running out of room? No problem, you can easily zoom out of your working area and start a new map or connection in another area. yWriter – FREE! (Windows Only) yWriter is a free word processor for Windows PCs. Built by a writer for writers, the program breaks up your novel into scenes or chapters, making it easier for you to keep track of what goes where. You can create character cards and tags, and add a lot of helpful customizable notes to your scenes, such as the time of day it takes place and how long the scene is supposed to last. Due to its simplicity, I wouldn’t recommend yWriter for writing a full novel, although it has been done. There are much more advanced programs for that. yWriter is better for planning out your story scene by scene. But if you’re on a budget, yWriter will get the job done! Writing: Scrivener I’ve been using Scrivener for several years now, and it’s hands-down the best thing that could have happened to my writing. Scrivener is one of most popular writing tools available today. It’s so much more than just a word processor – it’s a novel-generating machine. Similar to yWriter, Scrivener allows you to break up your project into different parts, but it’s not just confined to chapters or scenes. You can have a flashback, a brief exchange between characters, or an entire short story in one document. These can be edited separately, allowing you to focus on just one small part of your work, or in â€Å"Scrivenings Mode,† which links together a series of scenes, like a whole first act. There are tons of easy-to-use, customizable features like split-screen, a digital note card outliner, a binder, and my personal favorite, compose mode.    If it all seems overwhelming, you don’t have to use all of the features. With Scrivener, you can find what works for you. It’s also cheap – at less than $50, Scrivener is an absolute steal. Sprinter – FREE! If you like â€Å"word sprints† – quick, 15-minute bursts of writing – consider giving Sprinter a try. Sprinter is an uncomplicated, distraction-free web-based writing program with a timer. You simply start writing, and the timer on the right side of the page begins its countdown. Need more than 15 minutes? No problem, set the timer for as long as you wish. You can also make a word count goal. Sprinter is great for brainstorming, flash fiction, writing prompts, and more. If you need to save your work for later, create a Postbox account and sync to Dropbox, Google Drive, and Evernote. Ulysses (Mac only) Similar to Scrivener, Ulysses is a customizable writing tool with lots of great features. You can organize your writing by project or subject, attach files, set writing goals, and add links and images to your text with ease. Ulysses utilizes a clear, clean, and beautiful interface. The editor allows you to choose your own colors, outlines, and more.  Ã‚   One of the greatest benefits of Ulysses is its synchronization capabilities. The program syncs seamlessly with iCloud and works on iOS as well, so you can write anywhere you are, on any device. It also integrates with Dropbox, making it easy to collaborate with others. iaWriter (Mac and Android only – FREE on Android!) iaWriter earns its place on this list because it’s a clear and clean plain-text editor with some of the most important features of the others, but at a much lower price. iaWriter might not be as versatile as Ulysses and Scrivener, but it works on the same principles. One of the coolest features that set iaWriter apart is Focus Mode, which dims everything except the current sentence you’re working on. You’re sure to have better and stronger sentences after using it. Syntax Control makes Focus Mode even better by highlighting your sentence’s grammatical structure. With the latest version of iaWriter, you can even add pictures and tables to content blocks, in case you’re working on something other than a straightforward novel. Editing: Hemingway Editor – FREE! If you haven’t been using this free online editing software that highlights your sentence structure and syntax, you’ve been missing out. Simply copy and paste your text into the Hemingway Editor’s interface, and it will show you what needs to be fixed. Things like overly complex structures, use of passive voice, and readability all become instantly highlighted and color-coded, allowing you to see all problems at a glance. You can even format your text into headings, subheadings, and add quotes and links. There’s a paid desktop version that works offline as well. Grammarly – FREE! Grammarly is a neat little browser extension that does essentially the same thing the Hemingway Editor does, but in real time. It will highlight spelling and grammar errors and suggest fixes. Grammarly also sends weekly emails summarizing your editing stats. You can opt out of if this feature if you wish. The greatest thing about this free plugin is that it works on most websites and text boxes, including Gmail and social media sites. Use it, and you’ll never accidentally send an unedited tweet again! When it comes to your writing projects, don’t settle for just a straightforward word processor anymore. With so much technology at your fingertips, there are thousands of writing tools and apps available that can make your writing time more productive and enjoyable than ever. Yet each program is as unique and different as every writer. Remember that not every program is going to fit your particular needs and style. If you’re spending money, take time to choose a program that will work for you. Most of these programs offer trial versions, so spend time learning them and working out their features before you pay. Just don’t take too long – your work in progress still needs your attention as well! What writing software do you swear by? Do you have any programs that you love and would recommend to others? Let us know in the comments!    Matt Grant  loves to write about writing, business, and all forms of popular  culture – books, film, and television. Matt started writing DVD reviews for  Pop Matters  in 2012, and in 2016, he followed through on a life-long dream by launching a part-time writing business at  www.mattgrantwriter.com. Since then, Matt’s work has appeared in  Literary Hub,  Book Riot,  HuffPost, and  BookBrowse,  and he has several ongoing clients.  His first personal essay,  Swimming Lessons,  is being published in LongReads at the end of August. Matt is also currently hard at work on his first novel, a comedic take on fantasy tropes for young adults. When not writing or reading, Matt works in youth development as an after-school program director  for one of the largest middle schools in Manhattan. Matt lives in Brooklyn with his wife, Katelyn. You can find him online at  www.mattgrantwriter.com, on  Twitter  @mattgrantwriter, and on Facebook  @mattgra ntwriter.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Intolerable Acts (1774) in the American Revolution

The Intolerable Acts (1774) in the American Revolution The Intolerable Acts were passed in spring 1774, and helped cause the American Revolution (1775-1783). Background In the years after the French and Indian War, Parliament attempted to levy taxes, such as the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts, on the colonies to aid in covering the cost of maintaining the empire. On May 10, 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act with the goal of aiding the struggling British East India Company. Prior to the passage of the law, the company had been required to sell its tea through London where it was taxed and duties assessed. Under the new legislation, the company would be permitted to sell tea directly to the colonies without the additional cost. As a result, tea prices in America would be reduced, with only the Townshend tea duty assessed. During this period, the colonies, angered by the taxes levied by the Townshend Acts, had been systematically boycotting British goods and claiming taxation without representation. Aware that the Tea Act was an attempt by Parliament to break the boycott, groups such as the Sons of Liberty, spoke out against it. Across the colonies, British tea was boycotted and attempts were made to produce tea locally. In Boston, the situation climaxed in late November 1773, when three ships carrying East India Company tea arrived in the port. Rallying the populace, the members of the Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and boarded the ships on the night of December 16. Carefully avoiding damaging other property, the raiders tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. A direct affront to British authority, the Boston Tea Party forced Parliament to take action against the colonies. In retribution for this affront to royal authority, the Prime Minister, Lord North, began passing a series of five laws, dubbed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts, the following spring to punish the Americans. The Boston Port Act Passed on March 30, 1774, the Boston Port Act was a direct action against the city for the previous Novembers tea party. The legislation dictated that the port of Boston was closed to all shipping until full restitution was made to the East India Company and the King for the lost tea and taxes. Also included in the act was the stipulation that the colonys seat of government should be moved to Salem and Marblehead made a port of entry. Loudly protesting, many Bostonians, including Loyalists, argued that the act punished the entire city rather than the few who were responsible for the tea party. As supplies in the city dwindled, other colonies began sending relief to the blockaded city. Massachusetts Government Act Enacted on May 20, 1774, the Massachusetts Government Act was designed to increase royal control over the colonys administration. Abrogating the colonys charter, the act stipulated that its executive council would no longer be democratically elected and its members would instead be appointed by the king. Also, many colonial offices that were previously elected officials would henceforth be appointed by the royal governor. Across the colony, only one town meeting was permitted a year unless approved by the governor. Following General Thomas Gages use of the act to dissolve the provincial assembly in October 1774, Patriots in the colony formed the Massachusetts Provincial Congress which effectively controlled all of Massachusetts outside of Boston. Administration of Justice Act Passed the same day as the previous act, the Administration of Justice Act stated that royal officials could request a change of venue to another colony or Great Britain if charged with criminal acts in fulfilling their duties. While the act allowed travel expenses to be paid to witnesses, few colonists could afford to leave work to testify at a trial. Many in the colonies felt it was unnecessary as British soldiers had received a fair trial after the Boston Massacre. Dubbed the Murder Act by some, it was felt that it allowed royal officials to act with impunity and then escape justice. Quartering Act A revision of the 1765 Quartering Act, which was largely ignored by colonial assemblies, the 1774 Quartering Act expanded the types of buildings in which soldiers could be billeted and removed the requirement that they be provided with provisions. Contrary to popular belief, it did not permit the housing of soldiers in private homes. Typically, soldiers were first to be placed in existing barracks and public houses, but thereafter could be housed in inns, victualing houses, empty building, barns, and other unoccupied structures. Quebec Act Though it did not have a direct effect on the thirteen colonies, the Quebec Act was considered part of the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists. Intended to ensure the loyalty of the kings Canadian subjects, the act greatly enlarged Quebecs borders and allowed the free practice of the Catholic faith. Among the land transferred to Quebec was much of the Ohio Country, which had been promised to several colonies through their charters and to which many had already laid claim. In addition to angering land speculators, others were fearful about the spread of Catholicism in American. Intolerable Acts - Colonial Reaction In passing the acts, Lord North had hoped to detach and isolate the radical element in Massachusetts from the rest of the colonies while also asserting the power of Parliament over the colonial assemblies. The harshness of the acts worked to prevent this outcome as many in the colonies rallied to Massachusetts’s aid. Seeing their charters and rights under threat, colonial leaders formed committees of correspondence to discuss the repercussions of the Intolerable Acts. These led to the convening of the First Continental Congress at Philadelphia on September 5. Meeting at Carpenters Hall, delegates debated various courses for bringing pressure against Parliament as well as whether they should draft a statement of rights and liberties for the colonies. Creating the Continental Association, the congress called for a boycott of all British goods. If the Intolerable Acts were not repealed within a year, the colonies agreed to halt exports to Britain as well as support Massachusetts if it was attacked. Rather than exact punishment, Norths legislation worked to pull the colonies together and pushed them down the road towards war.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

International and comparative education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

International and comparative education - Essay Example The concept of gender equity is the stage of human social development whereby the rights, responsibilities and the opportunities available to individuals will not be subject to determine by the fact of being born male or female. In a complete gender balanced situation, it will be possible for aal genders to realize their full potential. There is a major problem of gender imbalance in the education sector, particularly on the participation of the feminine gender. It is apparent that the female gender remains the most to be disadvantaged  on matters of  access to education at different levels. This topic has been under debate in many international platforms as the initiative of enhancing girl child education (Gerntholtz et al., 2011). Basing on this context, it thus leads to the thesis; countries that fail capitalizing on the full potential of gender balance are misallocating their human resources, thus undermining their competitive advantage. This paper is going to analyze on the education system of South Africa and Nigeria with the aim of addressing issues of gender imbalance, focusing particularly on teenage education. The main purpose of the paper aims at justifying how investment in educational gender balance helps in shaping the ability of both the male and female for them to reach their full potential in t he society. The main problems facing the education system worldwide is the aspect of achieving gender balance. Educational attainment is without any doubt, remains the most fundamental prerequisite aimed at empowering women in all spheres of the society. Without having a comparable quality on the content of education provided to the boys and men in society, women will be unable to access well-paid and formal sector jobs. They will also fail to advance within them, be able to participate in, be unable to be represented in government, and fail to gain political influence (Gerntholtz

Monday, February 3, 2020

PROMOTING RECOVERY WORKING WITH COMPLEX NEEDS Essay

PROMOTING RECOVERY WORKING WITH COMPLEX NEEDS - Essay Example An increasing number of people in this group also have problems with substance misuse, often resulting in contact with the criminal justice system. These problems often interact and can appear intractable. Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in mental health, from a focus on illness and disability towards the promotion of recovery and social inclusion (Repper and Perkins, 2003). Underpinned by a stress vulnerability model of mental health problems (Zubin and Spring, 2004, 105; Nuechterlein, 2004, 300), a range of psychosocial interventions (PSI) can be used to enable service users to build on strengths and develop skills in order to manage their own mental health more effectively. This in turn can facilitate attainment by service users of socially valued roles and relationships taken for granted by most people. One of the available interventions is a structured approach to the prevention of relapse, developed by Birchwood and colleagues (Birchwood et al, 2000, 5), building on the early work of Herz and Melville (2006) and Birchwood himself (Birchwood et al, 2000, 652). This work had demonstrated that it was possible to predict relapse in psychosis on the basis of recognition of early warning signs. The intervention incorporates a strong educative element. This aims to increase understanding of the typically episodic nature of psychosis and to enhance service users' self-efficacy in relation to the management of their mental health. A Cochrane Review (Pekkala and Merinder, 2002) concluded that psychological education significantly reduces relapse rates, increases compliance with medication, and may have a positive effect on a person's well being. To deliver the relapse prevention intervention effectively calls for the use of a set of specialist knowledge and skills, in addition to general mental health nursing skills. Aims Our primary aim was to enhance the quality of service provided to users of the inpatient areas of the local mental health rehabilitation service by making the relapse prevention intervention available routinely and sustainably. An essential interim aim was to equip the multidisciplinary team with the knowledge, skills and confidence required to deliver the intervention effectively. To address these aims and evaluate whether they were achieved, we developed a project plan in six stages. In the event, workers from community settings also sought out the training, and so the original scope of the project was broadened to include all areas of the mental health rehabilitation service. This paper will focus on the aspects of the project relating to service users. Intervention The project was jointly led by the clinical nurse leader of the mental health rehabilitation services and a lecturer practitioner. At the outset we sought guidance from the Trust's research and development coordinator as to whether we should seek ethical approval for our planned project. The advice received was that the project represented service audi t/evaluation rather than research and, as such, ethical approval was not required. We began by attending clinical meetings at which we described our plans and encouraged discussion and questions by the multidisciplinary team. We refined a previously developed two-day training programme in order to meet the needs of a multidisciplinary group

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Co Action Effect And The Audience Effect Psychology Essay

Co Action Effect And The Audience Effect Psychology Essay The co-action effect occurs when a higher level of performance is present when surrounded by other individuals performing the same task. It can be applied to a variety of tasks competitive and non-competitive e.g. Sports, multiplications, spelling etc. It is also perceived that an individuals work rate can alter by merely watching the individual carry out a specified task. This is known as the audience effect. This theory however has positive and negative effects based on the degree of competence with the task given to the subject. If they are skilled in the task, their level of performance will heighten. However, the opposite will occur if the subject is not very capable with the task. These two theories are categorised under Social facilitation. Q2. Describe two psychology studies on this area of human behaviour stating their findings and conclusions. The co-action effect was first perceived in 1898 when a test was carried out by Norman Triplett. His theory was on cyclists and the speeds they reached when firstly, racing against each other and then racing individually against a stopwatch. He noticed that racing against each other rather than against the clock alone increased the cyclists speeds. He then tested his thesis in a controlled lab experiment where he gave children simple tasks to perform on their own and then with a partner. He again found that co-action resulted in improved results in the children. He concluded that the bodily presence of another contestant participating simultaneously in the race serves to liberate latent energy not ordinarily available (Triplett, 1898). An example of the audience effect was noted when psychologist J.Michaels 1982 carried out an investigation on pool players. First he assessed their ability and rated them either above or below average. He then stood by them to see if his presence had any effect on the way they played. The conclusions of the investigation showed that the more abled players performed to a higher calibre and the less abled decreased in ability proving that in fact even though the audience effect can have positive results, they can also facilitate negative ones too. The presence of an audience arouses humans and affects our ability to perform a task. This arousal stimulates us, so that if we are doing something we are good at, we do it better. However, we are already aroused when performing tasks in general. An audience overseeing the task can sometimes act as an over stimulant to certain individuals and interfere with the task at hand. Q3. Evaluate theories and research into the basis of social power including obedience and conformity. Power was found to be one of the most effective reasons as to why an individual feels the need to follow through with what another says to them. Psychologists have undertaken many years of experiments to try to figure out what types of powers are in our society and how they shape and influence the way we live today. There are two main points in social power that can alter an individuals thought process. Obedience and Conformity. Throughout this essay you will read how Psychologists have discovered the roles in which these two influences affect the society we live in. Conformity is described as the type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group.  This form of influence can occur in two separate ways. A majority influence whereby the feelings and behaviours of a collective set of individuals within a group can alter or change the opinion of the minority, and the minority influence whereby an individual will change the opinions of the masses in a group. One way in which a majority may influence is known as public compliance. Solomon Asch (1956) set out to encompass what this type of conformity was by using a simple exercise. The aim of the experiment was to see how subjects reacted when faced with an unambiguous task. Would they be influenced by a groups behaviour or would they stick to their own belief that they knew to be true. Aschs test was carried out on 123 participants and all were American males. The subjects were asked to distinguish between three lines and pick a line that was of the same size as a fourth individual line. The procedure was carried out with the individual subject sat around a table of confederates all instructed to give incorrect answers with the subject having to answer last. The procedure was conducted 18 times and out of the 18 guesses, the confederates were told to guess incorrectly 12 times as to add a sense of validity to the experiment. The results showed that 75% of the participants gave incorrect answers at least once suggesting that they had conformed to the group ideology of thinking. Asch then repeated the test and altered a control of no confederates giving wrong answers. Asch found that there were mistakes made about 1% of the time. The conclusion of the experiment shows that there was a high amount of conformity when faced with pressures from a collective group. Questions must be asked however on the actual validity of the experiment itself when looking at real life and moreover the demographic used in the experiment. The participants were asked a simple question, yet if faced with a question that holds more substance, would the participant still conform to such a degree? The experiment has been repeated on many occasions by changing the type of sample used to English scientists (Perrin and Spencer 1980) and youths on probation (Perrin and Spencer 1990). Some more recent research suggests that Aschs experiment is merely an unpredictable phenomenon (Lalancette and Standing 1990). The ethics involved are quite negligible when considering other experiments that will be discussed later in the essay. Participants must have felt tricked once they found out the other participants were actually confederates, and perhaps the subjects may have felt distressed when being put in a difficult situation. We can go back further in the 1900s and see other forms of experiments used to analyse the use of majority conformity. Muzafer Sherif (1935) investigated responses to ambiguous statements by using the auto kinetic affect. This is when very small movements of the eye make a spot of light in a darkened room appear to move because the eyes lack a stable frame of reference. Sherifs participants were tested individually, being asked to say how far the light moved and in what direction. Their answers varied considerably. However, Sherif then requested the participants work collectively to estimate the movements. Their answers started to become quite similar demonstrating the influence of a groups ideology on an individual. The results of this study can also be questioned too. As the answers were ambiguous and there wasnt an obvious answer it could be argued that participants are more likely to conform as they are never completely certain of their answer. This methodology therefore affects Sherifs interpretation of conformity as it is not very reliable. The same ethical questions can be asked when looking at this experiment. The participants were deceived and additionally put under pressure to conform to a groups way of thinking which can cause stress. We can also analyse conformity through the use of a minority influence. Although conformity is generally led by the influence of groups, individuals are occasionally able to reverse this tendency and change the opinions of people around them. This is known as the minority influence. If an individual makes a strong, convincing case it can increase the probability of changing the majoritys beliefs and behaviours. One iconic example of this occurring was the suffragette movement at the start of the 20th Century. The faction started out with a very limited amount of members with strong opinions that women should have the equal rights. Initially their opinions were unpopular but as time went by, the minority influenced the majority with their concise and logical arguments and eventually it led to the majority conforming to the same beliefs. To test this theory a Psychologist known as Moscovici (1969), conducted an experiment similar to that of Asch. 32 groups of 6 were chosen with 2 confederates in each group. The groups were shown a slide of varied shades of blue and asked to convey what colour was perceived. Moscovici et al proposed that if the confederates had that of a different opinion to the group and stuck to that opinion consistently, they could alter the groups views. The confederates consistently said the slides were green. The findings of the experiment showed that 32% gave the same answer as the minority at least once. This suggests that although it is a minute amount of impact on the results, there is some kind of conformity to the minoritys way of thinking. This experiment unusually doesnt hold many ethical problems. Although participants were deceived initially, the deception was moderately low and the tasks given were of a low level of stress. We could go as far as to say that this study was ethically acceptable. However, there are a few criticisms of study. The participants were females, Eagly and Carli (1981) study suggests that females are more likely to conform to ideologies of a group than that of men and so this questions how reliable the study actually is. And so we understand that conformity doesnt necessarily have a boundary that requires a person to act in a certain way. Obedience can be considered entirely different. Conformity does not require us to react in a specified manner whereas with obedience we are instructed or ordered to do something and these orders stem from a higher authority. We can relate this to history when we look at the atrocities that shaped Nazi Germany in World War I and II. Millions of defenceless Jewish people (and many other ethnicities) were slaughtered by Nazi soldiers under the influence of the government ran by Hitler. The heinous crimes committed had many questions to be answered but mainly how were the crimes committed and why?! During the Nuremberg trials, many of the high ranking officials were put to trial over what they had done with the only claim to their innocence being that they were simply, obeying orders. These claims were blatantly thrown out of court and a stereotype was claimed stating t hat a Germans DNA was simply different to that of every other human. Yet a man named Stanley Milgram wanted to understand if there were any truth to these claims. In 1963 he set up a psychology experiment to test if any human, not just German, could be put under such strict obedience pressures, that they could commit these horrific crimes against humanity. His participants were American men aged 20-50 and were from various occupation backgrounds. The study was carried out at Yale University, where they were taken to a lab and introduced to an experimenter dressed in a lab coat (confederate). They were then introduced to what the participant thought was a fellow experimenter however he would be the accomplice in the experiment. These gentlemen had fabricated that he had a heart problem to add to the validity of the study. Participants were then given a summary of the experiment. The mock investigation was to distinguish the roles between teacher and learner. A fake ballot would decide what role would be decided for the two subjects with the actual participant always allocated the teacher role. The procedure of the experiment consisted of a simulated electrode machine in the room the teacher was placed in that would be used to administer an electric volt to the student in another room. The isolation from the two subjects was to add to th e already dissociation created. Every time the student answered a question incorrectly from a sheet the teacher, (participant) was given. The participant would control the shock machine and the teacher would purposely answer the questions incorrectly. The experimenter would push the participant and provoke them to administer the shocks even if they insisted on stopping. Surprisingly, some 65% of the teachers gave what they thought was the maximum amount of punishment (450 volts of electric shock). Based on these results, Milgram suggested a theory known as the Agency Theory. He states that when faced with a stressing situation, humans attribute their responsibilities to an authority figure. This experiment completely changed the impact on social policy, but came with many ethical and situational complications. The ecological validity of the experiment should be questioned as the experiment was conducted within a laboratory and it could also be argued that the participants used were more suggestible as they volunteered for the experiment. Although participants were debriefed to a satisfactory manner (84% felt glad to have participated), the stress endured within the experiment could have possibly had long-term affects to the subjects. Milgram himself states, The degree of tension reached extremes rarely seen in experimentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Subjects were sweating, tremblingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦on one occasion we observed a fit so violent that it was necessary to call a halt to the experiment. Deterred by the ethical background of the experiment mentioned a man known as Zimbardo wanted to carry out an experiment to back up Milgrams study to add validity through using a less controlled environment. Male students applied for a study about prison life. 21 participants were chosen to be guards and prisoners (10 prisoners, 11 guards). The prisoners were arrested at home unexpectedly and blindfolded to disorientate them whilst taking them into their controlled prison cells (the basement of Yale University). Many symbolic items were used to associate the prisoners with their roles (ID numbers, nylon caps, orange jump suits). The guards also had many garments so they could associate themselves with their specified role (clubs, mirrored aviators, handcuffs). Over the two week period, the subjects became more and more connected to their specified role. The guards became more autocratic and the prisoners became tolerant of being punished for the miniscule of issues. The study shows how the guards and prisoners conformed to their roles given especially the prisoners through the use of obedience. However, the ethical issues developed throughout the case were even more severe than that of Milgrams. Five prisoners had to be released early due to depression and the whole experiment had to be cancelled only 6 days into the study out of an initial two weeks. So here we have seen how obedience and conformity influence humans and the test we have created to observe how these characteristics can be measured and implemented in real life. On the way we have seen many ethical questions arise as well as the validity of the actual experiments. If we can understand anything from the theories present, we must understand that the experiments involve human beings, who are probably, the most unpredictable sources to all the theories. Thankfully, we now have Ethical guidelines as a result of these experiments; human beings are malleable objects and must be handled with care. Hopefully the results from these investigations on obedience and conformity are used to help human beings in the future and not control them.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Growing Up With Nature – William Wordsworth’s “Nutting”

Touch-for there is spirit in the woods.† That small extract from William Wordsworth's â€Å"Nutting† represents very well the theme throughout the poems I will look at, the theme of growing up with nature and how nature teaches and guides him through life. In the poem â€Å"Nutting† Wordsworth starts off the day as he has done many times before, going out and looking for chestnuts, the childhood ritual which all children do at one stage during their life. But unlike before he goes to a part of the wood he has never been and which no one else has been to either, â€Å"I came to one dear nook Unvisited.† This untouched area of the wood delights Wordsworth and he is overjoyed to have found it himself, â€Å"A little while I stood, Breathing with such suppression of the heart As joy delights.† A tree full of, â€Å"tempting clusters†. This â€Å"virgin scene† began to seduce Wordsworth and he falls in love with it and begins to think that he owns the tree. So of course trouble is inevitable. â€Å"Then I rose, And dragged to earth both branch and bough, with crash And merciless ravage: Deformed and sullied, patiently gave up.† Wordsworth has totally â€Å"mutilated† this tree and feels â€Å"rich beyond the wealth of kings.† He really does feel delighted with the work he has just done but as the reality of it sets in and the picture of what this scene once was begins to give Wordsworth â€Å"a sense of pain.† This pain caused by the anguish of what he has just done to this defenceless tree. From this sense of guilt Wordsworth begins to realise that â€Å"there is a spirit in the woods.† And the foundations for his future beliefs in pantheism have been set. Wordsworth has moved on from his previous thought of a tree just being an object but now believes it has a kind of life force in it. In the poem â€Å"The Prelude (I)† Wordsworth follows a similar theme of growing up. In this poem young Wordsworth takes a boat which is not his and he is feeling very adventurous. â€Å"It was an act of stealth And troubled pleasure.† He felt very good when he took the boat and was having a very good time, until Wordsworth realises what he has done wrong but this is not realised until he reaches his destination in the lake. â€Å"The horizon's bound, a huge peak, black and huge, As if with voluntary power instinct Upreared its head.† This is the climax of the poem and helps show the sudden change in mood. Wordsworth is happily rowing the boat when suddenly this huge big thing shows itself. To Wordsworth this is some sort of hideous creature. But in fact as you go through the poem you learn that this is the first few signs of his developing conscience. â€Å"For many days my brain Worked with a dim and undetermined sense Of unknown modes of being; o'er my thoughts There hung a huge darkness†¦. †¦moved slowly through the mind By day, and were a trouble to my brain.† These show the signs of a guilty conscience, guilty from knowing he took the boat: a conscience Wordsworth is being taught about from nature and it again points to his emerging belief of Pantheism, that nature is God. The main focus in this poem â€Å"The Prelude (II)† is that of moving on. The poem has a picturesque setting of the â€Å"twilight gloom† This type of light however would tell Wordsworth to go inside, as if nature was telling him as a parent calls their children. But â€Å"I heeded not their summons.† So he carried on â€Å"All shod with steel, We hissed along on the polished ice in games:† a nice use of alliteration to convey the movement of ice skating. But Wordsworth being a Pantheist he cannot stay so he wonders off â€Å"not seldom from the uproar I retired.† Wordsworth here shows his poetic ability and understanding of nature because he realises that the hills are â€Å"melancholic.† His subconscious understanding of nature forces him to go off and explore. What he realises is that everything around him is moving. â€Å"With visible motion her diurnal round! Behind me did they stretch in solemn train, Feebler and feebler, and I stood and watched Till all was tranquil as dreamless sleep.† As a child he is travelling with the spirit of nature. I think everyone could relate to Wordsworth poems in someway: I know that I can relate to his feeling of a spirit in the woods. When I was lost I in the woods I felt as if someone was there showing where to go. So I will end on this note â€Å"Touch-for there is a spirit in the woods.†

Friday, January 10, 2020

Outrageous Incorrect Pov Narrative Essay Samples Tips

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